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    Is breakfast the most important meal of the day? Should we eat them immediately after waking up? Are proteins and fats better than carbohydrates? Answers to these and many other questions below. Although it has been accepted that breakfast eaten immediately after waking up is one of the basics of healthy eating, there is no evidence to support this thesis. A study carried out on overweight people, in which the effects of eating or not eating breakfast on weight reduction for 4 months were examined, showed no differences between the groups. So it turns out that breakfast is not necessarily necessary when losing weight. It is also not the most important meal of the day. Carbohydrates or proteins and fats? However, if we cannot imagine starting the day without breakfast, the question arises: what to choose? Currently, there is a fashion for protein-fat breakfasts instead of those containing carbohydrates. Why? All thanks to cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone that affects many functions of our body, including it increases protein catabolism, stimulates glyco- and glucogenesis in the liver, leading to an increase in sugar levels and enables the breakdown of adipose tissue. After awakening, the cortisol level is elevated, which makes carbohydrate metabolism ineffective. This can exacerbate unfavorable changes in blood glucose levels, so it is often recommended to skip carbohydrates in the first meal. As for protein, it has a positive effect on the regulation of hunger and satiety – so it is a key macronutrient in the context of reducing body fat. Our body uses much more energy to metabolize proteins than carbohydrates and fats. There are studies that confirm the beneficial effect of protein breakfasts on reducing appetite during the day. Protein causes a decrease in the level of ghrelin, i.e. the hunger hormone, and an increase in the secretion of cholecystokinin, neuropeptide Y or GLP-1, i.e. hormones responsible for the feeling of satiety. fatty acids. Examples of products that we can use to prepare it are eggs, good quality meat and dairy products, fish or protein supplement, but there is also the other side of the coin. Many studies show that fiber-carbohydrate meals have a better effect on satiety than those containing fat. On the other hand, a study carried out on a group of people with type II diabetes showed that the presence or absence of carbohydrates in breakfast did not affect glycemic control. Is there a golden mean? It is difficult to say which type of breakfast is better. There is no one proven breakfast schedule that is perfect for everyone. We should approach this – as with other diet-related issues – individually, observing our body closely.Many people after eating a carbohydrate-rich breakfast (such as oatmeal, yogurt with fruit or a fruit shake) feel bad, feel sleepy, have trouble concentrating and feel hungry quickly. Then you should think about changing your habits and try a protein-fat breakfast. Others, on the other hand, feel light and have a lot of energy – if this solution is good for them, there is no need to add proteins and fats to the first meal. No matter which type of breakfast suits you better, do not forget to choose the least processed ingredients, such as the highest nutritional density (a lot of nutrients in a small number of calories). To find out more about what to eat for breakfast, check the article by dietitian and personal trainer Michał Wrzosek